Pro. Sanjeev Kumar Sharma
Mahabharata Maharishi Vyas has presented the Indian concept of Rajdharma in detail. Bhishma, the great-grandfather lying on the bed, teaches kingship to Yudhishthira as the future emperor. In this sequence, knowledge has been given on various dimensions of royalty, which is described in Adiparva. Apart from this, detailed description is available in various festivals of Mahabharata on many aspects of the process of administration. Before Mahabharata, Valmiki Ramayana also mentions many principles and rules regarding Rajdharma. Both these epics are considered to be the introduction and presenter of Indian civilization and culture. The country’s first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru had said in his famous Maulana Azad memorial lecture that without Ramayana and Mahabharata it is impossible to imagine the literature, art, music, architecture, etc. of the whole of India.
Rajdharma described in the Vedas
The Vedas, the original creation of the whole world, also give proper direction to the governance system of the state. In general, the political system in India has been propounded as Rajdharma. The political and administrative organs and the social expectations from them have been outlined in the Vedas along with the description of various systemic forms of the state. Sabha, Samiti, Vidatha etc. are the Vedic political institutions, which continuously give democratic shape to the king-centred system. That is why Vedic sages are often seen praying for the nation’s protection, stability and its glory and yogakshem.
By the time of Mahabharata, probably the entire process of politics also came to be called Dandaniti. However, the penal policy is not the policy of determining the punishment for the crime. Punishment is one of the four parts into which the Indian knowledge tradition generally divided the vidyas. The saying of the scripture is – Vidya: Chatsra: – Enquiry, Trilogy, Talk, Punishment. The entire functioning of human life is related to these four disciplines. In these, punishment is very important even though it is in the last order. Vyas says that the dignity established by the rulers in the interest of the people, in order to end the fascination prevailing in the world in any way, to create order in the society, for the protection of religion and meaning, its noun is punishment. That is, the establishment of punishment is a system made in the public interest.
Every society keeps its culture, civilization, history, folk, scriptures, taste and happiness alive through songs, music, festivals, symbols, gods, pilgrimages, etc. All human civilizations take pride in their symbols. Through symbols, the society gets a pleasant feeling of being connected to its past and at the same time gets the power to interview its future.
There are many symbols in India’s social, political, intellectual and cultural tradition of thousands of years. Unfortunately, due to colonial slavery, our spiritual affiliation with them has been distracted and our self-forgetfulness and self-reproach have alienated us from our mythological cultural pride. But for the last one decade, a sense of respect for the symbols of diverse ancient culture and civilization has awakened in the country. It should also be remembered that this is also the time for India to give direction to the world in Amrit Kaal.
That is why the decision of the government to establish traditional Sengol at the time of inauguration of India’s own creation Parliament House, built 75 years after independence, is definitely historic. In the Indian tradition, at the time of taking the oath, the ruler used to say in the form of a king that Adandyo’smi. Now I am innocent. No one can punish me. That’s why Rajpurohit used to inform him with the attack of Kusha that religion is punishable. That is, the system of society will continue to determine your dignity in the form of Rajdharma. This is the punishment. This punishment is a symbol of transfer of power and it has been existing in the southern part of India as well. In the era of Chola Empire, there was a provision for the investiture of ethics in the royal power and as a symbol of society’s expectations of righteous-just rule, the sacred punishment was given by Sengol Rajguru to the new ruler. This scepter is also a public request to make the power polite, just and religious. The establishment of this ancient Indian symbol in the new Parliament along with the seat of the Speaker of the Lok Sabha will certainly prove to be an important step in the establishment of India’s eternal, intact cultural tradition. Rajdharma based Indian societies with clear systems of democratic values in political institutions have given birth to the idea of democracy in the world, this message will clearly go far from this.
role of compass
In such a situation, it is appropriate that the world’s oldest and largest democracy should revisit its state religion, symbols, institutions and terminologies. Associated with Tamil song and the tradition of the Chola Empire, Sengol is also a symbol of the unity and spiritual integrity of India. The establishment of this holy Sengol in Parliament will always remind everyone of the cultural superiority of India and the piety of governance. This will become the source of introduction of new India to ancient India. It will become a guiding tool for future policy makers. This will become the symbol of India’s Rajdharma. Come, let’s welcome this judicial protector Nandi Ankit Dharmadand Sengol in the new Parliament of India.
(The author is former Vice Chancellor, Mahatma Gandhi Central University, Motihari)
Disclaimer: The views expressed above are the author’s own.